on Tue May 01, 2012 4:59 pm
on Tue May 01, 2012 10:10 pm
on Tue May 01, 2012 11:02 pm
on Wed May 02, 2012 5:57 am
on Wed May 02, 2012 10:30 am
norah wrote:All babies are born without medication
One way to look at the potential effect of epidurals on babies is to study their behavior as compared to babies from non-medicated labors. Researchers in Sweden have discovered that epidurals and other medications do affect babies in the first hours after birth with regard to pre-breastfeeding, latching-on and other behaviors. In a 2001 study published in Birth, infants were videotaped and their behaviors were recorded. The study showed that compared to babies whose mothers did use use pain medication, infants whose mothers used epidurals or a combination of epidurals with other medications:
- Made significantly less hand to mouth movements
- Touched the nipple and areola much less
- Did not remained attached to the breast
- Cried more
- Had significantly higher skin temperatures
Researchers concluded that, "Spontaneous breast-seeking behavior in newborns is part of the interaction between the mother and her newborn and is based on coordination of body movements, sensory stimuli, and communication behaviors. This study indicates that maternal analgesia during labor might disturb and delay the important aspects of the newborn's interactive behavior and increase the newborn's skin temperature and crying."
According to authors Jensen, Benson and Bobak, (Maternity Care, the Nurse and the Family) analgesics and anesthetics do cross the placenta. "Many drugs cross the placenta readily (e.g., antibiotics, narcotics, analgesics, anesthetics)."
The medication used in epidurals (local anesthetics such as bupivicaine) crosses the placenta by diffusion. This means that when epidurals are administered, the medication rapidly diffuses across cell membranes, crosses the placenta and enters the bloodstream of the baby. According to one study, bupivicaine (administered via an epidural) was found in blood samples taken from newborns after the mothers had an elective cesarean.
http://brendalane.suite101.com/do-epidu ... ies--a8281
Epidural analgesia (EA) is clearly the most effective form of pain relief during labour. But various unwanted side effects are associated with its use, including longer labour; increased incidence of maternal fever (with associated increase in use of antibiotics for mothers and newborns); and increased rates of operative vaginal delivery and perineal trauma, such as more third- and fourth-degree tears.
Epidural analgesia given before the active phase of labour more than doubles the probability of receiving a Cesarean section.